Please see post: “GOES-14 1-minute Imagery use in SPC with Texas Severe (5/21/2014)” from 05/22/2014 for a some background information regarding the GOES-14 1-minute imagery: http://satelliteliaisonblog.com/2014/05/22/goes-14-1-minute-imagery-use-in-spc-with-texas-severe-521/. For more 1-minute imagery information and examples, please visit the following page: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/srsor2014/GOES-14_SRSOR.html
Another example of the utilization of GOES-14 Super Rapid Scan Operations for GOES-R (SRSOR) 1-minute imagery in an Storm Prediction Center (SPC) forecaster’s decision-making process came during the early to mid afternoon hours of May 22, 2014. Severe weather was expected to develop from New York south into eastern Virginia where strong heating and destabilization were expected to occur in the presence of decent deep layer shear. SPC forecasters were interrogating the 1-minute imagery around the Pennsylvania/New York border already by 1549Z, when a Mesoscale Discussion (MD) was issued (Fig. 1). The forecaster mentions in the text that “1-MIN RESOLUTION VISIBLE SATELLITE IMAGERY DEPICTS DEEPENING CU AND SMALL CBS FORMING ALONG/JUST AHEAD OF A COLD FRONT STRETCHING FROM AROUND 25 S ROC TO ZZV.”
A severe thunderstorm watch was issued for much of eastern New York and eastern Pennsylvania at 1640Z anticipating the development of severe convection out of the growing cu field. At 1719 UTC, a watch update MD was issued for the watch area (Fig. 2), noting: “AREAS OF CLUMPING CU EVIDENT IN 1-MIN RESOLUTION VISIBLE IMAGERY FROM S-CNTTRL PA TO CNTRL VA SHOULD EVOLVE INTO ISOLATED TO SCATTERED STORMS BY 19-20Z.”
Figure 3 shows a 3 hour animation of the 1-min visible imagery in the region of concern. Note the deepening cu field and eventual clumping of cu across northern PA into southern New York between 15 and 17Z as mentioned in the two MD’s, followed by the eventual growth of robust convection between 17 and 18Z.
Convection would continue to grow upscale out of this cu field, primarily producing widespread severe hail across the region, with the first report coming in at 1722Z (Fig. 4).
A SPC forecaster commented on the use of the 1-min imagery in operations during this event: “This has provided extra confidence and lead time for the issuance of two mesoscale discussions compared to the normal satellite update frequency/latency. With weakly forced, nebulous low-level boundaries over the Northeast today, the ability to see where boundary layer cumulus is deepening and clumping in this manner is quite striking. It’s analogous to the difference between watching high-def TVs vs. standard def, especially noticeable when switching back and forth to the normal GOES imagery.”
The forecaster went on to mention that “Satellite imagery at 1-min temporal resolution needs to become the new standard for severe weather operations.”
– Bill Line, SPC/HWT Satellite Liaison